Numenera: Role Playing in the Ninth World

Numenera: Role-Playing in the 9th World

Tabletop RPG Review

Descendant of the Crane by Joan He

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Todd Lockwood Interview – The Summer Dragon

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Interview – The Summer Dragon


Writing Rules and Fantasy: Mary Sues

This is the last in a series of articles about common writing rules and how they apply to fantasy writing. Earlier articles in the series:

Show, Don’t Tell
Kill Your Darlings

The dreaded Mary Sue! Is there anything that will draw such derision and mockery towards your story as committing the ‘crime’ of Mary-Sueing? But how can one name conjure up this amount of scorn, and what exactly does it mean to be a Mary Sue anyway?

So what is a Mary Sue?

Girl Reading by belafontesbunsaMary Sue (male characters are sometimes referred to as Marty Stu) is the term given to a certain type of character in a story, usually one who annoys the reader considerably, seems too good to be true, and who dominates the story. Exactly what makes someone a Mary Sue, however, is pretty vague and disputed.

The term arose out of Star-Trek fan-fiction, from a story that used a woman called Mary Sue to mock the fan-fic phenomenon of including author-insert characters. In fan-fic these kinds of characters are pure, incredible, possess a variety of skills or great insight, and are beloved by all the other characters. They will usually turn out to be extremely special in some way, and often become romantically involved with one of the canon characters. The term moved beyond fan-fiction to refer to any character in a story who fits this type. The site TV Tropes has a long section on Mary Sues that explains more about the term and its origin.

Mary Sues, then, are strongly connected to wish fulfilment. These are the characters that make you sigh, that when things happen to them you tend to think: ‘well yes, wouldn’t it just?!’

Fantasy Examples

The Mary Sue ‘problem’ (see below for discussion of whether this is actually a problem or not), is particularly prevalent in fantasy. This is because fantasy contains a high number of very powerful characters, as well as a lot of wish-fulfilment, and so certain character types have become tired through overuse.

Although there is nothing intrinsically wrong with any of these types, and the point at which they become annoying is highly subjective, these are the characters that a writer may want to take extra care with:

Saint Sarah by Thorsten-DenkChosen One: The Prophesied Hero or Heroine
The only one who can save the land. This character is Special with a capital S, usually marked out at birth. This idea pops up mainly in quest-fantasy, perhaps influenced by tales of King Arthur. Stories about chosen ones can still be fun and successful, of course, but there is also something appealing about a normal person bravely facing danger in order to do what they believe is right.

The Baddassest Baddass in Town
This character is just too cool, too awesome…and everyone knows it. Typical Badass traits include not caring what others think, defying authority, sharp shooting skills, a tendency to be rude to friends as well as strangers, and a gravelly or husky voice. Oh, and a hood. These guys love their hoods. If you write one of these characters and give them too many typical Badass traits, then it may come across as trying too hard. This is the type of character most likely to be met with an eye-roll.

Elite Level 20 to the Hundredth Power
This character just doesn’t lose. Ever. The reader is never worried for them, and if the writer isn’t careful, they can quickly become boring. Most typically found in epic fantasy, superhero books, and stories featuring magic users, swashbucklers, and assassins.

Flames of the Firebrand by SteveArgyleSuper Saiyan
Just when you thought this character could not get any more awesome…BOOM! From the mists of legend they pull out the super move, the power beyond all other powers. Be really careful with this one. In almost all cases it will feel like a cheap way to get out of the hole you dug yourself into, a deus-ex-machina move that will have readers throwing your book at the wall in disgust. And it raises questions that you’d better know the answer to. Why does this person have this power? How come they can do it when no-one else can? Why didn’t they use it earlier?! This character pops up a lot in superhero stories, though this is also the sub-genre in which you are more likely to get away with it.

Speshul Snowflake
This is the character who seems to be special and is treated as such, often without much evidence as to why. This is the character who can get away with what others can’t, gets opportunities others don’t, and is loved no matter what they say or do. They are different from the chosen one because their specialness is not a plot point. Rhapsodes Girl by breathing2004They might be pampered and protected, or they might face plenty of danger, but either way it is clear that this is the special character that we are all supposed to adore. This is probably the most subjective out of all the categories listed.

Too Good For This Cruel, Cruel World
A variation of Speshul Snowflake. These characters are presented as being so pure or good that they are a shining beacon in a tarnished world. All other characters are flawed in comparison, and this one special person will often be all that keeps the protagonist’s hope alive. They are very rarely, if ever, the hero themselves. This character’s death may be responsible for the protagonist or villain’s final flip out. This is most common in gritty fantasy, and it should be noted that the reader very rarely actually likes the character involved (and is often secretly glad when they kick the bucket). Not quite the desired effect.

And This is Bad Because…?

Wait a minute. In many cases Mary Sue actually seems to mean: ‘kick-ass and special’. Why’s that a bad thing?

Well, it isn’t. Not necessarily.

The Miner's Daughter by Aly FellAnd here is one of the biggest problems with the Mary Sue criticism. It’s too subjective. Your Mary Sue is my awesome hero. My Mary Sue is your sympathetic heroine. Your Mary Sue is my empowered female character. And it’s that last point that is particularly important because Mary Sue is a gendered insult. Most characters accused of being Mary Sues are female. The term for it is a woman’s name. Some people even claim that men cannot be Mary Sues (or Marty Stus or whatever) at all. Think about that. Female characters are annoying for being ‘too awesome’, but it’s just impossible for a man to be too awesome.

For a very interesting and more in-depth discussion of this point, read this article on adventures of comic book girl’s tumblr.

Other characters who tend to be easily labelled as Mary Sues are people from various minority backgrounds or socially disadvantaged groups. In other words, the term Mary Sue is in danger of becoming a way of saying: ‘I do not believe this person could or should possess such power’.

Or even simply: ‘I don’t like this character’. Because everyone seems to get accused of being a Mary Sue at one point or another. Too powerful – Mary Sue! Not powerful enough – Mary Sue! Too confident and independent – Mary Sue! Too shy and needy – Mary Sue! It’s one of the most illogical criticisms out there.

So What Can I Do?

Rather than getting bogged down with exactly what a Mary Sue is, perhaps it would be better to think in terms of good and bad characterisation. Is your character realistic? Do they act in a way that makes sense? Do they have any weaknesses? Are they dominating the story too much?

We can also think in terms of conflict. Does everything come too easily for this character? Does everyone like them? Do they have any real problems?

If a problem seems to be emerging after answering those questions, then regardless of whether the character is a Mary Sue or not, they may be letting your story down. In other words, although the term ‘Mary Sue’ is unhelpful, asking why such characters tend to be seen as annoying is actually very helpful:

– A character needs to be more than just wish-fulfilment if you want them to be an interesting person. They need to make mistakes sometimes, and to face real problems.

– If this character breezes through the story without conflict, then readers are likely to become bored.

– A character who is too powerful may be unrealistic. It can be unbelievable that they would not have solved their problems earlier.

– Readers may find it hard to relate to a character who is extremely powerful.

– When characters are too skilled and amazing, the story could lack tension and suspense.

– Readers do not like the feeling that the author is telling them who to like. It is better to actually write your protagonist as likeable and let the reader see this for themselves, rather than have every other character constantly assert what a wonderful person they are.

But, if you are ultimately happy with your character’s skill, power and importance, if you feel that they are confident, empowered and acting realistically, then don’t let the ‘Mary Sue’ issue stop either of you!

Title image by Thorsten-Denk.



  1. Avatar Jo Hall says:

    The one that annoys me which I don’t think you addressed is the “Other girls hate her because she’s so beautiful but she doesn’t know it” trope. I think it’s been argued that all characters have elements of Mary-Suery….

    • Avatar Edi says:

      This is a side point – my apologies Jo – you got me thinking! (That one is the point I most associate with Mary-Sues incidentally.)

      Normally, this character is generically beautiful to the point of loathing – that doesn’t help. Or they’ve introduced a teeny-tiny defect so small and then turned it into a ‘look how not perfect this person is but it just makes them even more beautiful’. That’s annoying too.

      At the end of the day, every single person (excuse the hippy in me for a moment) is found beautiful by someone else. Why can’t there be a bit more diversity in beauty in fantasy? Why the ‘tiny pale scar across her cheek’ or the ‘crocked lip’.

      I know there are authors that do diversity beautifully, just wish it was a bit more prevalent. You’re a battle hardened amazonian warrior – you’ve probably got wicked cauliflower ears and big, deep, angry scars. You’re a shut away priestess – you probably are really ropey, not particularly defined, underweight (Priestess-ing isn’t exactly a well-paid, well fed occupation normally…) so on so forth.

      Anyhoo… just a thought. Thanks Victoria, great article.

      • Avatar Edi says:

        ¬_¬ apologies for my confusing, all in my head not so good on the screen typing too.

        The ‘too beautiful but doesn’t know it’ trope is the thing I associate with Mary-Sues.
        Not the thinking.


  2. Avatar N.L.Douglas says:

    To me, Mary Sue is for character that are felt to be the Authors ejecting them-self in to the story and never really been about race or sex. In Fan Fic circles, it’s exactly that, the author self-incerting themselves in the the story generally has a love interest for a character they have a crush on or a Messiah that comes from nowhere.
    In Fiction it a bit hard to pinpoint, but still easy to spot, if that makes sense? They usually follow certain tropes like getting superpower without trying, Speshul Snowflake and the one Jo Hall address, the unknowing beauty. Belle Swan, who has become the prototypical Mary Sue, has all of these. But so does Peter Parker, depending the writer. And The Doctor! The thing for me the defines a character has a MS is the intent.

  3. Avatar Vincent Quill says:

    I find the only Mary sues to be abhorred are the creator’s pets. Characters that the author clearly loves, every character loves, is put into important situations for no reason, is given exceptional abilities (most of which they pick up far faster than anyone else could possibly) and no flaws, or at least no non-gimmicky ones, the author won’t allow him to lose anything properly, is aesthetically attractive, and the reader absolutely despises, which is not the author’s intent. E.g. Eragon
    I have to say, my current WIP have two characters that may fall into this gap. One is the protagonist, and I am modelling his personality, emotions and physical responses on myself, (author avatars aren’t all necessarily bad. See Luthíen and Beren, modelled on Tolkien and his wife) and my exceptionally crude wizard who is practically the opposite of me but for some reason shares all of my opinions, and is extremely powerful (and insane) hmmm…

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