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Topics - Yora

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Writers' Corner / Insights made about writing
« on: April 14, 2018, 09:31:08 PM »
I guess in the lives of writers, there are frequently moments when you start to realize or learn something that you didn't before. Often not something huge or groundbreaking, but sometimes they are. Things that usually don't warrant to make a big announcement, but that still are steps to improving your writing. And I think a lot of these things might actually be just as useful to other writers in some way as well, even if it's just to add another small piece to larger puzzles about storytelling. So I'd really like to hear what things you've discovered or stumble upon in the future.

The realization I just made is that at the center of all Noir stories, there are characters who all don't fully trust each other. Nobody really trusts anyone. The big majority of all action is simply two or more characters having quiet conversations in which they try to get useful information from one another while subtly communicating that they know the other is up to something. They don't know what, but they are sure the other is trying to trick them in some way. They may have close allies whom they trust with valuables and sometimes even their lives, but never with their feelings. Everyone is always in a state of weary distrust around other people, that really is the core of the entire Noir style.

Writers' Corner / Making great stories ouf of simple plots
« on: April 11, 2018, 07:02:14 PM »
Fantasy is a style of fiction that, especially in recent decades, has a great love for highly complex plots. Lots of characters with lots of different motivation and numerous plans and agendas that keep crossing and disrupting each other, and with a good amount of surprising revelations and discoveries along the way. Stuff you can fill 5, 10, or even 14 doorstoppers with before it's all wrapped up. It's what is considered the default and what lots of writers seem to aspire to after getting some practice with a trilogy or two. And there's a lot of advice for writing fantasy stories that assumes something of this type.

Thing is, this is not really my kind of stuff. I'm much more interested in writing stories that are much shorter in comparison and focus more on exciting moments than complex long term webs of intrigue. To make a comparison, my ideal is less a 5 season TV show and more a 120 minute movie. And when you look at the stories you see in movies, they are mostly really incedibly simple. It's rare to find some kind of action adventure movie and ask yourself "Who is that guy again? What was it that he wants? When did that happen? Why is this important?" Instead these stories become compelling because of the action that is happening is entertaining, or because the characters who are doing them are interesting.

It's not like this is completly alien to literature either. Conan, Elric, and Kane stories also tend to have plots that are not much more complex than "He goes to a place, fights some, and discovers something weird at the end (and probably fights it too)." And some of them are really quite fantastic. Or even just try to sum of the plot of The Lord of the Rings. It's a real lightweight in that regard.

But while this sounds very easy, there's always the risk  of the story ending up having no real substance at all and being just stuff happening that doesn't feel meaningfully connected. (Kingdom of the Crystal Skull being the worst offender I can think of.) And so far, I've not made any real progress in trying to find any form of advice on writing compelling simple action heavy stories that work with a small cast and a very limited amount of exposition and turning points. Any thoughts or pointers on this subject?

At some point I pretty much lost track of what is being released in fantasy books and most new books I've heard about didn't sound very interesting to me. On a first glance from a diatance it all looked very samey. That whole "assassin has to uncover a conspiracy" thing that seemed to have been all the rage for a while. But I can't imagine this perception is actually accurate in any way.

What books from the last 20 years or so would you recommend for their quality of being creative and imaginative? The only name that comes to my mind is Perdido Street Station.

Writers' Corner / Character sheets (for highly developed characters)
« on: February 27, 2018, 08:48:22 PM »
I fully admit that I am not at all well read in current fantasy books, and not really much in the old classics either. But one thing that I feel I am encountering a lot is casts of characters that are overwhelmingly very nondescriptive. There are a couple protagonists who have been interesting enough to draw so that they now have a recognizable iconic look, but mostly the only memorable thing about them is the things they did. Most protagonists I can think of are either men or women, have a hair color, are sometimes given a height, and a type of weapon they use almost all the time. When it comes to secondary characters things are even worse.
I feel that this becomes a problem later on when such secondary characters show up again later and you can only recognize them if you remembered their name or they are reintroduced by their occupation. I find it much more interesting when you can remember them at least as "that giant with the huge club" or "that assistant with the blue coat who constantly insults people".

Now that I am working on a plot and start to have some ideas which roles will have to be filled, I am thinking of designing multi-dimensional characters with memorable traits before working out any of their scenes or dialogs. The way TV shows design their regular characters before they write scripts for them. And at least now, I still feel the want to give this treatment to every character with a speaking role who appears in more than one scene.

The idea that I have is to draw up a little character sheet for each proper character who appears in the story and list all the traits that stand out and could make the characters memorable: Unusual height or built, memorable pieces of clothing, noteworthy weapons or pieces of equipment, odd habbits or forms of speech, catchphrases, and things like that.
When you do this with every character I see the potential of the story being populated by over-stylized carricatures. But I think that might not necessarily be bad, even in a work with a serious tone and otherwise realistic aim.

So I now got an actual super rough idea for a story of book length and a pretty clear image of the kind of world it takes place in and what kinds of things the characters will run into. Among which are a lot of gods of the land and nature spirits that have a very extensive degree of control over the environment and climate, as well as priests, witches, and sorcerers who are trying to wrestle at least some of that control from them. Then there's also prominent naturally occuring objects and places of great magical powers. It's all going to be very magic heavy and mystical.

And yet, at  the same time, I find myself having absolutely no desire to really hammer out any specifics for how magic actually works. Where the energies come from, how it's controlled, how people learn to access it, how it affects things, and all that kind of stuff. It's not like I've made a deliberate choice to keep these things unexplained to the audience. I just really don't want to do this part of work. I've done it a couple of times in the past and I think it came out really well, but this time I just think about it and thing ...bleh.

I kind of feel like this is something that is going to be important and necessary. Something that I will need for a story with these central elements. But I am also feeling very unsure whether I just got tired of hammering out magic systems, or if my intuition is telling me that it's not appropriate to do so this time.  :P

Writers' Corner / Plots without twists and payoffs other than surprise
« on: February 17, 2018, 05:53:14 PM »
Somehow I got the impression that storytelling in recent years has maybe been putting too much emphasis on surprising twists. There are a couple of really good ones, both now and from earlier, but a lot of fantasy fiction seems to be build around the expectation of an amazing revelation at the end of the story. The Sixth Sense was great and I love "I am your father", but these are both cases in which the real surprise is that there's a revelation at all. It wasn't like the whole plot was set up to make the audience wonder about the answer to a central question and then blow them away with something more amazing than they expected. That's a path I think is really hard to follow and pull off successfully.

When you tell the audience to get ready for a big amazing reveal and leave them in anticipation for 10 years, it's probably impossible to deliver anything that satisfies those expectations. This is a struggle I rather want to not fight at all, even though these days it probably will be the default expectation of most readers when you first release something and they don't yet know that this is not the way you write.

But I also feel that a story has to have a grand finale and there needs to be some kind of payoff at the end. Which becomes a bit more difficult when everyone is already expecting that the hero will kill the villain and get the girl in the last chapter. "Can the hero succeed" doesn't seem like a viable alternative to make the readers anticipating an ending with a nice payoff.

How else could a plot be approached to give it an ending that is exciting and makes the reader feel that their building anticipation had been worth it. I am quite fascinated by the idea of stories that deal with failures, setbacks, and limitations and with making protagonists more interesting by not having everything fall nicely into their lap at the end. From that, one potential approach to tension and eventually payoff that comes to my mind is to make the readers wonder how much losses the heroes will suffer until the end and how much they will end up having to pay for their victory. Like when the heroes decide to assault a stronghold in chapter 16 and you're dreading which nine out of the ten characters will still be around in chapter 24 and how many hands and eyes they will have together. But you can't really sacrifice one or two relevant characters every significant confrontation, so this approach would still need some further refining.

Writers' Corner / Working with symbolic imagery
« on: February 11, 2018, 08:55:48 AM »
I've recently been playing the Dark Souls games a lot, which are quite well known for their intricate worldbuilding. And one thing that keeps striking me as something that looks really interesting for writing is the constant and consistent use of repeated symbolic motives. Almost all of the magic and supernatural stuff in that world either takes the form of, or is described in terms of fire, ash, and bone. It's a world in which fire is the original creative source, but as every fire it eventually burns out leaving only ash. And without the creative energy of fire, people are starting to become undead, which is where the bone imagery comes from.
These images of fire, ash, and bone are absolutely eveywhere. Whenever someone talks about the power of the gods or the human spirit, it's done in fire based terminology. And there are lots of magic bones, ash, and coals that retain some of the divine energy, as well as plenty of magic spells described as projecting the power of the sun. It may seem a bit overdone, but I think it actually works really well. (They also made another game called Bloodborne which has everything themed around blood, eyes, and werewolves.)

I don't remember such an approach being used in other works of fantasy to such an extend. Fire and ice occasionally as a dualism, but without the whole theological and cosmological framework that covers the setting as a whole.

I've been thinking about how I could try something similar with the world I am working on, and two visual themes came almost immediately to my mind. Trees and water. And on second thought, there are so many things you can talk about in tree metaphors. The first thing that I think of as a gardener is structure. A solid trunk that connects roots that are firmly anchored in the ground with a wide spanning canopy that consists of endlesly differentiating branches. Trees also take nutrients and water from the earth and sunlight from the sky, to create life between the two. Wood is also a material that is both solid and flexible and can easily be shaped, and before steel and plastic was the main material from which people made almost anything. Trees also have fruits, which in Europe have been very essential to supplement a grain based diet. And there is so much symbolism you can tap into with the image of fruits.
And it also helps that I base the world somewhat on northeast Europe, where trees have long had a very central role in religious imagery and symbolism. I also like architecture for fantastic places that is very vertical, like towers and very high colums. These can easily be described in tree based terminology.

Water is also quite cool. I used to think of it as the most boring of the elements, but I've come to regard it as the most interesting in it's symbolism. Water is the source of life, and also a symbol of purity, with it being the primary cleaning agent throughout all history. Yet at the same time, water can be incredibly powerful and also destructive. Storms feel so much worse when it also rains, and you have of course all the flooding. Water can swallow up land in very short time and sweep things away to be gone forever. In northern European culture, water is also a gateway to the underworld. Swampy ponds with deep black bottoms are passages to the world of spirits, and the surface of the ocean sits on top of an endless, cold, black abyss that can swallow everything and make it literally vanish from the face of the earth forever. And in a setting focused on costal areas and ship travel, this is something that people are dealing with on an everyday basis.

I also really like fog. It is obscuring and also confusing, but is also associated with illusions and in extension also premonitions. And in a setting based on cold coastal swamplands it's something you can add to scenes all the time and it's something that people would believably make regular use of in metaphors.

I think this is a really cool approach to come up with a religious terminology that people in a setting are using to make sense of the world around them, and it can also be used to add a consistent feel to natural magic instead of scientific human created systems of categorization.

Writers' Corner / Starting close to the end
« on: January 30, 2018, 08:50:48 PM »
Really just an idea that occured to me. But what about writing a story that starts close to the end of the overall plot. Only the final chapters, so to speak. The protagonists and antagonists all know each other for a long time and have a lot of shared history. No flashbacks and only limited exposition. Think of the Iliad, it really only covers the last days of a complex war with dozens of characters that had already been going for years.

It's an approach that works very well in short stories and that I've seen on occasion in other media, but never in a novel. Could this work in longer form? Or would readers automatically have questions about past events that would require a flashback if the story goes on for a certain time? Somehow I imagine such a book would feel pretty artsy.

I was just thinking of how I might go about to search for new books that would deliver what I am looking for in fantasy and it occured to me that at least from the way books from recent years are being discribed and discussed, they seem to be overwhelmingly about politcs, spying, and thieving in big cities. I can't really think of any book from the past 20 years in which wilderness is not just something characters are passing through briefly on their way between places, but in which it takes and active and central role in the plot and the perception of the characters.
I can think of some sci-fi books in which some alien presence turns nature against humans, but I am not aware of anything like that in fantasy.

Does it exist? Was it ever really big outside The Lord of the Rings? Where did it go?

Fantasy Book & Author Discussion / Magically mutable worlds
« on: January 20, 2018, 09:40:31 PM »
Recently I've been fascinated with the concept of fantasy worlds in which supernatural forces are changing the environment or even reality and where these forces can be influenced to some extend by people. Either through active magical influence or just the believes or conditions of the people or special individuals. The most explicit examples I can think of are from RPGs and videogames, but the concept does shine through in The Last Unicorn and The Neverending Story, at least from what I remember. It's also in Andersen's Snow Queen (don't know the English title) and the legend of the Fisher King, whose realm is sick and depressed because he is.

I'm always somewhat tired of stories where the heroes have to go on a dangerous adventure because of a villain who simply enjoys destroying and enslaving everything. These often don't have much room for meaningful reflections on what to do about the situation and which of the many options are actually desirable. You got to straight up murder that guy and that solves everything. And at the same time I often feel underwhelmed by protagonists who simply want glory and riches. They are fun in the moment but tend to lack meaningfulness in the long run.

But making or keepin the world more livable is a cause I can totally get behind. It's also one with potentially a lot of different options what to change specifically, of which many are no more or less correct than the other and all of them will have very serious consequences. It also comes through in Princess Mononoke where the antagonist wants to buy off the emperor to leave her outcast sanctuary alone by getting him the head of a forest god that possesses such a power over the land. Everyone wants to improve living conditions for their people but the consequences are nightmarish. A great source for complex conflicts with deeper meanings, that at the same time allow for a lot of very fantastic stuff to appear or happen.

I think it kind of relates to the classic fantasy image of the cosmic forces of Order and Chaos, as in Elric, Lodoss War, and a whole lot more. Does anyone know of good books that have this element of supernatural forces altering the environment in dramatic ways that go beyond the simple Order and Chaos opposition?

As I mentioned a while back, I've put my plans for a prehistoric Sword & Sorcery series on hold for the time being and instead turned my attention to trying something that is more similar to my favorite movies, comics, and videogames that I actually spend most of my time with. (There are sadly few books like that which I've found, but it's write what you would like to read after all.) I like stories that are introspective with gloomy atmosphere and moments of high tension potential violence and overwhelming obstacles, but which are ultimately about reaffirming identity and convictions in highly unfavorable situations and environments. And scary supernatural weirdness. So basically Dark Fantasy with a focus on gloom and not gore.

Discussing specifics seems to always be more productive than generalities, so here is the concept that has been emerging over the past month. Let me know what you think of it, or even just what comes to mind when reading something like this:

I've long been thinking that the influence of Northern European history and culture has always been almost limited to the western North Sea region of the Vikings and English. Which is admittedly cool, but it's not like we don't have anything interesting and fascinating in the eastern Baltic Sea region as well, where Skandinavians were just one of many different ethnic groups that all played major roles in its history. Some people might have heard of Finish gods and have a vague image of medieval Russia. But I would think that even here most people wouldn't know that German merchant lords and crusaders, pagan Lithuanian, Mongol hordes, and Byzantine Greeks were all engaged in the same big struggle for power and massive wealth. The period I am most interested in is the 13th and 14th century, where lots of stuff happened that ultimately concluded with a huge battle of Crusaders vs. Pirates. I first had the idea to make a fantasy adaptation of this period, but that would be a massive epic spanning 120 years and not really much about the themes I am most familiar with, so I decided to only draw lots of elements and influences from this region and period. (Still an option for a magnum opus one day if I end up making a career out of it, right?)

The world that is taking shape won't be very large. Half the size of Europe maybe, or perhaps Middle-Earth? There's a whole planet, but I think that only a small region needs to be described in detail. It is populated by a single race of human- and elf-like mortals, but a great ethnic diversity with differences as big as between homo sapiens, neanderthals, and homo heidelbergensis. Technologically, societies are about the level of 13th century Europe, but people are much wider dispersed and overall population density is quite low. (Again, think something like Middle-Earth.)
The One Big DifferenceTM of the setting is the presence of an allreaching field of supernatural power that not only is of different strength in different areas, but can also change in local strength over the course of centuries, but occasionally also years or just months. People have learned long ago that regions of low magical intensity are the most suitable for long term habitation as spirits tend to be drawn to regions of high magical strength where their own powers are greatest. Where the magial energies are weak, the numbers of spirits are low and they are less active, assertive, and capricious. But as the strength of magic is always changing, mass migrations are a persistent aspect of life. Kingdoms and great cities often last only a couple of hundred years until they decline and are eventually abandoned, with the diminished populations dispersing into neighboring realms or the wilds. At the same time, newly accessible regions are constantly being settled, often revealing the ruins of ancient cities whose origins have been forgotten by any of the short lived realms of the present.
Life in the kingdoms and even in newly settled areas is a pretty mundane affair of working the fields and the occasional minor wars. The decline and abandonment of a region is always a dreadful time, though. It's not that most of the returning spirits are directly attacking the inhabitants of the land, but their presence makes the land fight back harder against farming, logging, and hunting, making life harder and more dangerous to everyone. Common folk and merchants seeking a better life elsewhere are always the first to leave, but once the powerful landowners give up their claims and leave with all their remaining wealth to more prosperous lands, all that remains behind are lawless desolations. Eventually various megical phenomena appear in random places, which can make large areas completely uninhabitable and lethal dangers to anyone getting too close. It's a time of scavengers and brigands and the remaining villages become small forts highly distrusting of any outsiders. It is also a time of forgotten treasures left behind by those who didn't know what secrets have been hidden below their dwellings, which draws in plenty of treasure hunters and sorcerers.

The themes I want to deal with are the same I always want to write about. Wanting to do what feels right, when doing what's right is really hard. And coming to terms with real people not being invincible heroes and that courage and determination won't be letting you do the impossible. When you can't get what you want, what will you be doing instead?
Evil is not a cosmic force that compells people to spread suffering and destroy. Instead, evil is the result of people trying to force the world to be what they want instead of what it is. People have a great capacity to shape the world around them for the better, but there are many more things that can't be changed and people have to adapt to them and make compromises. The refusal to accept limitations, to adapt, and to compromise always leads to disaster for everyone involved. Knowing when to give up and when to persist to get the outcome you can live with the most is the big question that stands at the center of all important situations. It is what makes the difference between a hero and a villain. Closure is not getting everything you want, but to realize that you got everything you can.
Another thing that highly fascinates me is violence. Not combat (which I find rather meh), but the dynamics of agression.The threat of violence, the judging of danger, and the decision to commit, as well as considering and dealin with the consequences. For a heroic tale, the threat of violence needs to be common. But I feel that the outbreak of actual violence best works when it is very rare. When most threats of violence end without a fight and those fights that happen always have severe consequences, it makes every situation with potential violence much more tense. Ideally, the audience should always be hoping that there won't be a fight when the heroes are threatened with violence. I don't have the heart for blood and guts, but when someone swings a blade, I want it to change everything.

Writers' Corner / Fantasy material from Northeast Europe
« on: December 04, 2017, 07:24:36 PM »
I've stepped back from my barbarian treasure hunters on dinosaurs idea for the time being and instead aim for something that is more in line with the kinds of stories I actually read and watch the most. Which would basically be Noir in a fantasy world.

And somewhat to my own surprise, I am actually warming up to the idea of setting it in a world that draws its main influences for culture and environment from the various lands around the Baltic Sea in northeast Europe (Germany, Poland, the Baltics, Russia, Finland). I always liked the idea of doing something based on my local culture and Noir might be the one solitary thing for which our tepid drabness is actually an asset.  :D You could reasonably describe it as Vikings without all the cool stuff, but the Byzantine and Mongol influences from the south and east spice it up in ways that most people have never encountered before.

Thing is, even as a local with great interest in the subject, I don't really know that much about the historic and mythological elements from the region that would make for good fantasy material. Scandinavian and British material is so much more known and accessible. But that's also been done a thousand times (in this case certainly literally) and I am looking for more stuff that might perhaps just unconsciously a baltic atmosphere.

The one mythological creature that I know which I think is really a genuinely local thing are the necks, in their countless different spellings. Necks appear as young women swimming in lakes and river. They lure people to them who then find a sad end by drowning.
The baltic basin is a vast expanse of sand deposited and spread out flat by the glaciers of the Ice Ages, which makes the whole region very swampy and full of ponds and small rivers. And there is always something sinister about black bottomed ponds and they were often used to send sacrifices into the underworld.

A curious side effect of these swamps is that they are often completely lacking in oxygen which makes decay and corrosion more or less impossible. Corpses can be extremely well preserved for thousands of years and still appear very life-like.  There are a few in the British Isles, but it really seems to be a phenomenon primarily of the Baltic region. Bog wights totally have to be a thing.  ;)

Sadly I don't really have much more than that. Do you have any ideas for other local references I could draw from?

I've got this idea for a somewhat Dark Fantasy leaning world where most common people are living relatively safe lives and are not usually threatened by supernatural horrors that lurk in the dark corners of the world, but their security comes with some not so pleasant side effects. Now the simple way to do this is to have their leaders do some unspeakable horrors in secret, but I don't really want to go in the "desparate ends justify desparate means" direction. That's too bleak for me.
Instead, there is already an interesting conflict that comes with the situation in reality. Civilization is a great thing to protect against violence and secure the supply of food (though not foolproof), but it also comes with the price of having to pay taxes and the many having to follow the orders of the few. In non-civilized cultures, society is generally much more egalitarian and people have less work and fewer duties, but life is also much more volatile with calamities striking more often and more severely, as the mutually supporting networks are much smaller. There's even a theory that many non-civilized cultures at the borders of great civilizations were not simply lagging behind in development, but were actively seeking isolation to escape taxes and conscription. Civilization is not automatically always better than the alternative, and there are many good reasons against it that had many people in history chose to avoid it.
The famous Germanic uprising under Armenius against the Roman was because of the Germans having to deal with this choice. They defeated the Romans and drove them out, but later murdered their leader because they lost access to many goods and services they had started to rely on.

It's an interesting conflict to begin with, and with just the kind of ambiguity that I really like. But I want to do it with a big addition of magic. The world is full of often very dangerous spirits, but somehow a handful of small empires emerged that managed to keep their lands supernaturally secure. People in the towns and village deligently perform rites at the temple and have the proper runes of protection on their houses and boats, and for most of the time they are not getting any trouble from spirits. Meanwhile the clans that live in the wilderness beyond the imperial borders are under a regular threat of supernatural calamities, but they have good reasons why they chose to accept this part of their life and refuse to seek the means with which the empires protect themselves.

The big question I am facing now is: What means? What is going on in the empires that their people consider a good price to pay but the barbarians see as unacceptable?
I really like the idea that the imperial citizens don't really know much about the supernatural. They know that their religion protects them from very bad things happening, but they don't really understand what the threat is and how their religions keep them safe. Within the empires, real understanding of the supernatural is limited to small groups that have to deal with magical threats because of this knowledge, while for the barbarian tribes it's part of everyday life. To really make this work, I think the civilized method to guard against spirits has to be something that wouldn't make the people rise up in revolt if they would learn about it. It needs to be something that could be seen as acceptible enough or as too much depending on an individual's cultural upbringing.

This feels like a pretty tall order to fill, but I think if I can get this to work there would be a really interesting setting with lots of story potential to be had. Any ideas, even vague or partial, in what direction I could take this?

Writers' Corner / Well, this didn't work... Starting over older and wiser
« on: November 08, 2017, 07:04:40 PM »
After three months of very much fruitless tinkering with an old semi-abandoned concept I have come to the realization that my original idea is inherently flawed and simply doesn't work.
I went into this with a whole bunch of ideas for a setting that I find fascinating, aesthetically inviting, and overall a place that I consider my ideal fantasy world. While at the same time all the books, movies, comics, and videogames that really inspire me to do something creative and make something that is amazing are all of a completely different style that doesn't have any overlap with such a setting. My vision for a setting is pretty, but it doesn't really provide any foundation for the subjects and themes that I care for in a story. With that in mind it doesn't feel at all surprising that I was never able to really come up with a plot for my character and my setting. My ideal character needs to be forced into dark adventures by circumstances while my ideal setting lets characters express themselves at their own prefered pace. I don't see how the two could be working together and since you can't have a story without characters doing things, I think I will have to create a new setting that is much more actively intrusive. Pretty much back to square one there.

Have you run in situations where you realized something that you really liked just didn't work for writing a good story? Have you gained any valuable insights for it that are good lessons for the future?

Writers' Corner / What are we going to do tonight, Brain?
« on: October 26, 2017, 08:18:21 PM »
The same thing we are doing every night, Pinky. Try to save the world!

I've been struggling seemingly for ages with the matter of of picking an external goal and conflict to write a story around. When I start thinking about what motivates characters in other great stories to go on dangerous adventures, it usually tends to come down to some variant of saving the world as the heroes know it. If the villains don't threaten to destroy or take over the world, then they try to destroy or take over the kingdom. Or they already did and the heroes try to reverse it.

It's tried and true, but it's also an endlessly used cliche.

When I can think of stories that are not about saving the world, it's usually that the heroes want to become rich. Which I don't think is really that much better.

Aside from saving the world and getting rich, what else is there that could motivate fantasy heroes to go on dangerous adventures where people are trying to kill them?

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